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“150 Tankers.” Decca Navigator News 28 (Sept 1960).

Adam, J. G. “Decca for Helicopter Operations.” Journal of the Institute of Navigation (UK) 9 (Oct 1956): 385–389.

Aders, Gebhard. History of the German Night Fighter Force 1917–1945. London: Jane’s, 1979 [orig. German 1978].

“An Aerial Radio Lighthouse.” Flight, 19 Sept 1940, 227.

“Air Lines to Span Nation.” Science News-Letter 12 (2 July 1927).

“Airline Navigation: A Summary of Facilities and Procedures.” Flight, 11 Mar 1955, 333.

Alexander, Lewis M. “The Expanding Territorial Sea.” The Professional Geographer 11, no. 4 (1959): 6–8.

“All Landings Blind When Necessary, Experts Forecast.” The Science News-Letter 35 (10 June 1939).

“And Now Omega.” Flight, 25 Oct 1957, 640.

Aslakson, Carl I. “Geodetic Control in Jungle Areas.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 39 (Oct 1958).

———. “The Influence of Electronics on Surveying and Mapping.” Surveying and Mapping (July–Sept 1950).

Banner, Stuart. Who Owns the Sky? Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Beauchamp, Ken. History of Telegraphy. London: Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2001.

Beck, Geoffrey Edward. Navigation Systems: A Survey of Modern Electronic Aids. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1971.

Blanchard, W. F. “Air Navigation Systems, Chapter 4: Hyperbolic Airborne Radio Navigation Aids – A Navigator’s View of their History and Development.” The Journal of Navigation (UK) 44 (Sept 1991).

———. “Another Look at the Great Area-Coverage Controversy of the 1950’s.” The Journal of Navigation (UK) 58 (2005).

Bovill, Charles B. “A Review of Radio Aids in Aviation.” Journal of the British Institution of Radio Engineers 6, no. 6 (1946).

Bowen, E. G. Radar Days. Bristol: A. Hilger, 1987.

Brenard, Robert. “The Romance of the Air Mail to East and South Africa.” Journal of the Royal African Society 38 (Jan 1939).

“Britain Accepts DMET.” Flight, 20 May 1960, 682.

“Britain Opposes VOR/DMET.” Flight, 6 Mar 1959, 308–309.

Brown, A. H. “The Consol Navigation System.” Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers – Part IIIA: Radiocommunication 94, no. 16 (1947).

Brown, Louis. A Radar History of World War II. Philadelphia: Institute of Physics, 1999.

Burchall, H. “The Politics of International Air Routes.” International Affairs 14 (Jan–Feb 1935): 89–107.

Burden, William A. M. The Struggle for Airways in Latin America. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1943.

Burmister, Clarence A. “Electronics in Hydrographic Survey.” International Hydrographic Review 26 (May 1949).

Buxton, S. W. “Freedom of Transit in the Air. The Present Position and How It Has Been Reached.” Economica 16 (Mar 1926).

“C.E.R.C.A..” Flight, 16 Aug 1945, 182.

Caldwell, Donald and Richard Muller. The Luftwaffe Over Germany: Defense of the Reich. London: Greenhill, 2007.

“Campaign Diary, October 1944.” 2002. Available at

Campbell, Andrew C. “Geodetic Positioning at Sea.” Navigation (US) 15 (Spring 1968).

Christopher, Nicholas S. “Marine Integrated Navigation System.” Navigation (US) 16 (Winter 1969–1970).

Churchill, Winston. Their Finest Hour. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1949.

Cockburn, Robert. “The Radio War.” IEE Proceedings 132, part A (Oct 1985 [orig. 1945]): 423–434.

Colin, Robert I. “Ernst L. Kramar: Pioneer Award 1964.” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Navigational Electronics (June 1964).

———. “Otto Scheller and the Invention and Applications of the Radio-Range Principle.” Electrical Communication 40, no. 3 (1965).

———. “Robert J. Dippy: The Hyperbolic Radio Navigation System.” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems (July 1966).

———. “Survey of Radio Navigational Aids.” Electrical Communication 24 (June 1947).

Collins, C. B. “Inter-Aerodrome Navigation.” Flight, 7 Dec 1933, 1221–1222.

Conant, Jennet. Tuxedo Park: A Wall Street Tycoon and the Secret Palace of Science that Changed the Course of World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002.

Congrès des Transports Aériens. Rapports et discussions, 29 Nov – 2 Dec, 1934. Paris, 1934.

“Consol Navigation System.” The International Hydrographic Review 26 (Nov 1949).

Conway, Erik. “The Politics of Blind Landing.” Technology and Culture 42 (2001): 81–106.

Cooper, John C. “Air Transport and World Organization.” The Yale Law Journal 55 (Aug 1946).

———. “Some Historic Phases of British International Civil Aviation Policy.” International Affairs 23 (Apr 1947)

Couper, A. D. “The Marine Boundaries of the United Kingdom and the Law of the Sea.” The Geographical Journal 151 (July 1985): 228–236.

Crane, Conrad. “Raiding the Beggar’s Pantry: The Search for Airpower Strategy in the Korean War.” Journal of Military History 63 (Oct 1999).

“D.I.A.N..” Flight, 23 Aug 1957, 250.

De Groot, Loren E. “Loran-Inertial Navigation Systems for Long-Range Use.” Journal of the Institute of Navigation (UK) 18 (July 1965): 319–329.

Dean, Walter N. “How We Got to Where We Are.” Paper presented at the first Wild Goose Loran-C Association Symposium, 1972.

“Decca Developments.” Flight, 15 Apr 1960, 525.

Dellinger, H. and Haraden Pratt. “Development of Radio Aids to Air Navigation.” Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers 16 (July 1928).

Dellinger, J. H., H. Diamond, and F. W. Dunmore. “Development of the Visual-Type Airway Radiobeacon System.” Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers 18 (May 1930).

Demonstrations of Radio Aids to Civil Aviation. London: HMSO, 1946.

Denman, Roderick. “Radio Air Navigation: The Trend of British Development.” Flight, 21 Jan 1937, 54–56.

Diamond, H. “Applying the Visual Double-Modulation Type Radio Range to the Airways.” Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers 17 (Dec 1929).

Dippy, R. J. “Gee: A Radio Navigational Aid.” Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers – Part IIIA: Radiolocation 93, no. 2 (1946).

“Discussion on ‘Radar Navigation,’” Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers – Part IIIA: Radiolocation 93, no. 2 (1946): 511–512.

“Division Meetings: Communication.” ICAO Monthly Bulletin, Apr 1949: 5–8.

“DME Procedures and Implementation.” Flight, 1 Apr 1960, 441.

Dodington, Sven. H. “Ground-Based Radio Aids to Navigation.” Navigation (US) 14 (Winter 1967–1968).

Doel, Ronald E., Tanya J. Levin, and Mason K. Marker. “Extending Modern Cartography to the Ocean Depths: Military Patronage, Cold War Priorities, and the Heezen-Tharp Mapping Project, 1952–1959.” Journal of Historical Geography 32 (2006).

“Doppler in Practice.” Three papers in Journal of the Institute of Navigation (UK) 14 (Jan 1961): 34–63.

Dunlap, G. D. “Major Developments in Marine Navigation during the Last 25 Years.” Navigation (US) 18 (Spring 1971).

Duprez, Jean Jacques. “The Strategic Embargo: Doctrine and Practice.” The World Today 19 (Sept 1963).

Durbin, Edward. “Current Developments in the Loran C System.” Navigation (US) 9 (Summer 1962).

Enge, Per et al. “Terrestrial Radionavigation Technologies.” Navigation (US) 42, no. 1 (1995).

“F.A.A. Is Criticized on Flight Delays.” New York Times, 29 June 1968.

Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Inc. Advertisement. Surveying and Mapping (Mar 1959): 141.

Farmer, J. C. “Survey of Long-Range Radio Navigation Aids.” Proceedings of the IEE, Part B: Radio and Electronic Engineering 105, no. 9, part S (1958).

Frank, Robert L. “Current Developments in Loran-C.” Proceedings of the IEEE 71 (Oct 1983).

———. “History of Loran-C.” Navigation (US) 29 (Spring 1982): 1–6.

Galigiuri, Joseph F. “SGN-10 First Commercial Inertial Navigator.” Navigation (US) 14 (Spring 1967): 85–92.

Gallei, Francisco. “American and German Fighter Control Through 1945.” Master’s thesis, Air University, 2008.

Garfield, W. L. “Tacan: A Navigation System for Aircraft.” Proceedings of the IEE, Part B: Radio and Electronic Engineering 105, no. 9, part S (1958): 298–306.

Gaudillère, P. C. “Un système de base pour la radionavigation: «Radio-Mailles»” (two parts), Navigation (FR) 1 (1953), no. 1: 45–48, and no. 2: 25–43.

Goedhuis, D. “Sovereignty and Freedom in the Air Space.” Transactions of the Grotius Society 41 (1955).

Grindon-Ekins, P. M. “The Impact of Digital Computing.” The Journal of Navigation (UK) 27 (July 1974): 323–331.

Gross, Gerald C. “European Aviation Radio.” Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers 19 (Mar 1931).

Grover, J. H. “Long-Range Navaids.” Flight, 27 Apr 1956, 495.

Groves, P. R. C. “The Influence of Aviation on International Affairs.” Journal of the Royal Institute of International Affairs 8 (July 1929).

Guerlac, Henry E. Radar in World War II. New York: American Institute of Physics, 1987.

Guttmann, Eric S. “Chart Logistics for Advanced System Requirements.” Navigation (US) 12 (Winter 1965–1966).

Haile, T. C. “Political Aspects of the Charting of the Seas.” Journal of Navigation (UK) 34 (Jan 1981).

Hall, John, ed. Radar Aids to Navigation. New York: McGraw Hill, 1948.

Hall, Melvin and Walter Peck. “Wings for the Trojan Horse.” Foreign Affairs 19 (Jan 1941): 347–369.

Hall, Russell E. “Expanding Airways in the Far East.” Far Eastern Survey 6 (28 Apr 1937): 95–101.

Handover, Dennis H. “A New Empire Link: West African Colonies Linked with Empire’s Air System.” Journal of the Royal African Society 35 (Oct 1936).

Harrison, Richard Edes. “The Floor of the World Ocean” [map]. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 51 (Sept 1961).

Hart, C. A. “Surveying From Air Photographs Fixed By Remote Radar Control.” In The Royal Society Empire Scientific Conference, June–July 1946: Report, vol. 2. London, 1948.

Hastings, Charles E. “The Application of Raydist to Hydrographic Surveying.” International Hydrographic Review 26 (Nov 1949).

Hecks, Karl. Bombing 1939–1945: The Air Offensive against Land Targets in the World War Two. London: Robert Hale, 1990.

Hellman, H. “The Development of Inertial Navigation.” Navigation (US) 9 (Summer 1962): 83–94.

Henderson, Paul. “Airways and Airdromes.” Engineers and Engineering 43 (May 1926).

Honoré, Étienne and Émile Torcheux. “Les radionavigateurs Rana.” Navigation (FR) (Jan 1953): 38–44.

Horsfall, R. B. “Stellar Inertial Navigation.” IRE Transactions on Aeronautical And Navigational Electronics (June 1958).

Hough, Floyd. “The Universal Transverse Mercator Grid (With Particular Reference to Africa).” Conference of Commonwealth Survey Officers, 1951: Report of Proceedings. London: HMSO, 1955.

Hudson, Edward. “Use of ‘Area Navigation’ System Planned to Help the Air Traffic.” New York Times, 13 Mar 1969.

Hunkapiller, B. B. “Aerial Electronic Surveying.” Navigation (US) 5 (June 1956).

“I.C.A.N., 1937.” Flight, 8 July 1937.

International Civil Aviation Organization. International Standards and Recommended Practices: Aeronautical Telecommunications. Annex 10 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. Montreal: ICAO, editions of 1968, 1972, 1985, 1996, and 2006.

International Commission for Air Navigation. Convention Relating to the Regulation of Aerial Navigation Dated 13th October 1919. Paris, 1925.

———. Official Bulletin 20 (Oct 1932).

———. Official Bulletin 24 (Dec 1936).

———. Regulations for the International Radioelectric Service of Air Navigation. Paris: ICAN, July 1934.

International Hydrographic Bureau. Radio Aids to Maritime Navigation and Hydrography, special publication 39, 2nd ed. Monaco: IHB, 1965.

International Meeting on Marine Radio Aids to Navigation: Proceedings and Related Documents, April 28 – May 9, 1947. Washington: State Department, 1948.

Jackson, W. E. and S. L. Bailey. “The Development of a Visual Type of Radio Range Transmitter Having a Universal Application to the Airways.” Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers 18 (Dec 1930).

Jessell, A. H. “The Range and Accuracy of Consol.” Journal of the Institute of Navigation (UK) 1 (July 1948): 241–256.

Johnson, Thomas D. “Status of Dectra.” Navigation (US) 5 (Summer 1957).

Jones, F. E. “Oboe: A Precision Ground-Controlled Blind-Bombing System.” Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers – Part IIIA: Radiolocation 93, no. 2 (1946): 496–511.

Jones, R. V. Most Secret War. London: Hamilton, 1978.

———. “Navigation and War.” The Journal of Navigation (UK) 28 (Jan 1975).

———. Reflections on Intelligence. London: Heinemann, 1989.

———. “Scientific Intelligence.” Journal of the Royal United Services Institution 42 (1947): 352–369.

Kear, F. G. and W. E. Jackson. “Applying the Radio Range to the Airways.” Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers 17 (Dec 1929).

Keen, Ronald. Wireless Direction Finding, 3rd ed. London: Iliffe & Sons, 1938.

Kendal, Brian. “Air Navigation Systems Chapter 3: The Beginnings of Directional Radio Techniques for Air Navigation, 1910–1940.” The Journal of Navigation (UK) 43 (Sept 1990).

Kramar, Ernst. “Consol and Consolan.” In Radio Navigation Systems for Aviation and Maritime Use: A Comparative Study, ed. W. Bauss. New York: Macmillan, 1963.

———. “Hyperbolic Navigation – History and Outlook.” Interavia (Feb 1969): 174–177.

Kuehl, Daniel. “Refighting the Last War: Electronic Warfare and U.S. Air Force B-29 Operations in the Korean War, 1950–53.” Journal of Military History 56 (Jan 1992).

Kuhn, Arthur K. “The Beginnings of an Aërial Law.” The American Journal of International Law 4 (Jan 1910).

———. “International Aerial Navigation and the Peace Conference.” The American Journal of International Law, 14 (July 1920).

Larsen, John. “The Integration of Air Navigation Systems.” Navigation (US) 15 (Winter 1968–1969).

Laurent, P. “Toran.” In Radio Aids to Maritime Navigation and Hydrography, International Hydrographic Bureau Special Publication No. 39, 2nd ed. Monaco, 1965.

Laurila, Simo H. “Across the Jungle by Hiran.” Surveying and Mapping (Mar 1964).

———. “Decca in Off-Shore Survey.” Bulletin géodésique 39 (1956).

Lindsey, Robert. “New Air Navigator Blazes Its Own Trail.” New York Times 21 May 1970.

Lipsey, Elmer M. “Tactical Air Navigation.” Navigation (US) 16 (Fall 1969 [orig. 1965]).

“Loran-A is Alive and Well... and Living in China.” Wild Goose Association Radionavigation Journal (1985–1986).

Lord Bowden of Chesterfield, “The Story of IFF.” IEE Proceedings 132, part A (Oct 1985).

Luck, David. “An Omnidirectional Radio-Range System.” RCA Review 6 and 7 (July 1941, Jan 1942, and Mar 1946).

MacKenzie, Donald. Inventing Accuracy. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1990.

Mara, Thomas D. “Automation of Merchant Ship Navigation Systems.” Navigation (US) 18 (Summer 1971): 215–220.

McArthur, Charles W. Operations Analysis in the U.S. Army Eighth Air Force in World War II. Providence: American Mathematical Society, 1990.

McDonald, Keith D. “A Survey of Satellite-Based Systems for Navigation, Position Surveillance, Traffic Control, and Collision Avoidance.” Navigation (US) 20 (Winter 1973–1974).

McFarland, Stephen L. America’s Pursuit of Precision Bombing, 1910–1945. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995.

McGann, Edward L. “The Evolution of Loran-C Coverage.” Navigation (US) 29 (Spring 1982): 89–101.

McIntosh, C. H. Radio Range Flying. Chicago: Ringer, 1941.

Mealing, R. H. S. “Air Traffic Control.” Flight, 19 Oct 1933, 1049.

Michell, R. B. “The Second International Meeting on Radio Aids to Marine Navigation.” Journal of the Institute of Navigation (UK) 1 (Jan 1948).

Mourad, A. G. and N. A. Frazier. “Improving Navigational Systems Through Establishment of a Marine Geodetic Range.” Navigation (US) 14 (Summer 1967).

Museum of Air Traffic Control. “Four-Course Radio Range.” 2010? Available at

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Nares, J. D. “Coordination of Geographical Grids of the World.” In J. M. Tienstra, “Comptes rendus des séances de travail de la Section des Triangulations de l’Association Internationale de Géodésie.” Bulletin géodésique 23, no. 1 (1949).

“Navigation – Fourth Rate.” Flight, 19 Jan 1939, 54.

“Navigation – Inertial Portents: Doppler Debut: Radio Aids Full House.” Flight, 16 May 1958, 659–665.

“New Inventions Add Greatly to Safety of the Aviator.” Science News Letter 22 (Oct 1938).

“The Newly Discovered World Beneath the Waves.” Fortune, Nov 1959.

“Nigerian Venture.” Decca Navigator News 26 (Nov 1959).

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“Omni-directional Radio Range.” Flight, 8 May 1941, 328.

Oreskes, Naomi. The Rejection of Continental Drift. New York: Oxford, 1999.

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Patton, Harold S. “Canada’s Advance to Hudson Bay.” Economic Geography 5 (July 1929).

Pearson, M. G. “The Use of an Airborne Digital Computer in a Compound Navigation System.” Journal of the Institute of Navigation (UK) 16 (Oct 1963): 472–475.

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Pierce, J. A., A. A. McKenzie, and R. H. Woodward, eds. Loran: Long Range Navigation. New York: McGraw Hill, 1948.

Powell, C. “The Decca Navigator System for Ship and Aircraft Use.” Proceedings of the IEE, Part B: Radio and Electronic Engineering 105, no. 9, part S (1958).

———. “Early History of the Decca Navigator System.” Journal of the Institution of Electronic and Radio Engineers 55 (June 1985): 203–209.

———. “An Elementary Compound System.” Journal of the Institute of Navigation (UK) 16 (Oct 1963): 467–472.

———. “Radio Aids to Surveying.” In Conference of Commonwealth Survey Officers: 1955 Report of Proceedings. London, 1955.

———. “Radio Navigation in the 1920s.” Journal of the Institution of Electronic and Radio Engineers 56 (Aug–Sept 1986).

———. “Two-range Decca as an Aid to Hydrography.” Journal of the Institute of Navigation (UK) 11 (Jan 1958).

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———. “Shoran Operations in Canada.” Surveying and Mapping (Oct–Dec 1952): 363–370.

———. “Shoran Triangulation in Canada.” Bulletin géodésique 24 (1952).

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Seeley, Stuart William. “Shoran—A Precision Five Hundred Mile Yardstick.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 105 (15 Aug 1961).

———. “Shoran Precision Radar.” Electrical Engineering 65 (Apr 1946).

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Severwright, R. A. “The Impact of Special-Purpose Computers on Aircraft Equipment.” The Journal of Navigation (UK) 28 (July 1975): 398–405.

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Watson-Watt, Robert. The Pulse of Radar. New York: Dial Press, 1959.

Watson, A. G. “Radio Aids to Navigation.” Navigation (US) 3 (June 1952).

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Whelpton, R. V. and P. G. Redgment. “The Development of C.W. Radio Navigation Aids, With Particular Reference to Long-Range Operation.” Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers – Part IIIA: Radiocommunication 94 (Mar–Apr 1947).

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Wikkenhauser, G. “A Roller Map Equipment.” Journal of the Institute of Navigation (UK), 13 (1960).

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Willis, Edward J. The Methods of Modern Navigation. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1925.

Willis, F. R. “Radar in Civil Aviation.” Flight, 20 Mar 1947, 242–243.

Winick, Alexander B.“Air Navigation Trends.” Navigation (US) 15 (Spring 1968).

Witkin, Richard. “Aviation: Congestion. Declassification of Military Radar Devices May Help Clear the Air.” New York Times, 11 Aug 1957.

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Wright, E. R. “The Use of the Flight Log.” Journal of the Institute of Navigation (UK) 9 (Oct 1956): 389–393.