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organized chronologically by date
published sources only


Gibson, Robert et al. A treatise on practical surveying. Baltimore, 1818.


State of Missouri v. State of Iowa, United States Supreme Court Reports 165 (1896 term).


Bowie, William and Oscar Adams. Grid System for Progressive Maps in the United States. US Coast and Geodetic Survey Special Publication No. 59. Washington: USGPO, 1919.


H[inks], A. R. “The Belgian–German Boundary Demarcation.” The Geographical Journal 57 (Jan. 1921).

Bowie, William. Comparison of Old and New Triangulation in California. CGS Special Publication 151. Washington: USGPO, 1928.


Graaff Hunter, J. de. “The Figure of the Earth from Gravity Observations and the Precision Obtainable.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, series A 234, no. 743 (15 July 1935): 377–431.


United States War Department. Orientation. Technical Manual TM 44-225. Washington DC, 15 July, 1941.

United States Army Map Service. Grids and Magnetic Declinations, 2nd ed. Memorandum No. 425. Washington DC, 1943.

“World Polyconic Grid.” AMS Bulletin, no. 1 (Aug 1943): 1–5.

“New Table Replaces Five Five-Minute Intersection Tables.” AMS Bulletin, no. 9 (July 1944).

United States War Department. Orientation for Artillery. Technical Manual TM 44-225. Washington DC, 30 June 1944.

Hough, Floyd. “The Readjustment of European Triangulation.” Bulletin géodésique 2 (Oct 1946).

Hough, Floyd. “The Readjustment of European Triangulation.” Transactions, American Geophysical Union 28 (Feb 1947).

Comptes rendus of a conference on the European triangulation. Bulletin géodésique 7 (1948): 1–93.

O’Keefe, John. “The New Military Grid of the Department of the Army.” Surveying and Mapping 8 (Oct–Dec 1948).

Hough, Floyd. “European First Order Triangulation and its Adjustment.” Photogrammetric Engineering 15 (Mar 1949): 26–32.

United States Army Map Service. Universal Transverse Mercator Grid Tables. Technical Manual No. 7. Washington DC, 1949?

Whitten, C. A. “Progress of the European Triangulation Adjustment.” Transactions, American Geophysical Union 30 (Dec 1949).


Heiskanen, Weikko. “The Practical Significance of the Geoid Determinations.” Geofisika pura e applicata 18 (1950): 99–102.

United States Army Map Service. Grids and Grid References. Technical Manual No. 36. Washington DC, 1950.

Hough, Floyd. “International Cooperation on a Geodetic Project.” Transactions, American Geophysical Union 32 (Feb 1951).

Johnson, William E. “The World Geographic Reference System.” Air University Quarterly Review 4 (Summer 1951).

O’Keefe, John. “Some Applications of Tensor Analysis to Geodesy.” Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 32 (Apr 1951).

Skop, Jacob. “The Evolution of Military Grids.” The Military Engineer 43 (Jan–Feb 1951): 15–18.

Chovitz, B. “Classification of map projections in terms of the metric tensor to the second order.” Bollettino di Geodesia e Scienze Affini 11 (1952).

Clough, A. B. Maps and Survey. London: War Office, 1952.

O’Keefe, John. “The Universal Transverse Mercator Grid and Projection.” The Professional Geographer 4 (Sept 1952).

United States Army Map Service. Universal Transverse Mercator Grid. Technical Manual No. 19. Washington DC, 1952.

Hall, William C. “Reference Systems for Close Air Support,” The Military Engineer 45 (1953).

Chovitz, B. “Some applications of the classification of map projections in terms of the metric tensor to the second order.” Bollettino di Geodesia e Scienze Affini 13 (1954).

Hough, Floyd W. “A Conformal and World-Wide Military Grid System.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers (1956 [orig. 1954]).

Heiskanen, Weikko. “New Era of Geodesy.” Science 121 (14 Jan 1955).

Hough, Floyd. “The Universal Transverse Mercator Grid (With Particular Reference to Africa).” In Conference of Commonwealth Survey Officers, 1951: Report of Proceedings. London: HMSO, 1955.

Liberman, Harry. “An Investigation of the Geoid in Europe.” Bulletin géodésique 37 (1955).

Rainsford, H. F. “The African Arc of the 30th Meridian.” In Conference of Survey Officers, 1951: Report of Proceedings. London: HMSO, 1955.

United States Department of the Army. Foreign Maps. Technical Manual 5-248. Washington, DC, June 1956.

United States Department of the Army. Universal Tr​ansverse Mercator Grid. Technical Manual TM 5-241-8. Washington, DC: 1958.

Blackie, W. V. “Co-ordinate Control for Legal Surveys.” The Canadian Surveyor (Oct 1959).

Fischer, Irene. “The Hough Ellipsoid, or the Figure of the Earth from Geoidal Heights.” Bulletin géodésique (Dec 1959).

Lilly, J. E. “New Brunswick Plane Co-ordinates.” The Canadian Surveyor (Oct 1959).

Mills, D. L. “The African Arc of the 30th Meridian: Completion of the Triangulation.” In Conference of Survey Officers, 1955: Report of Proceedings. London: HMSO, 1959.


Blackie, W. V. “Legal Surveys for Oil and Gas Rights in the Yukon and Northwest Territories.” The Canadian Surveyor (Nov 1961).

Hirvonen, R. A. “The Reformation of Geodesy.” Journal of Geophysical Research 66 (May 1961).

Saastamoinen, J. “A Canadian Grid System in 3° Transverse Mercator Zones.” The Canadian Surveyor (June 1964).

Colvocoresses, Alden P. “A Unified Plane Co-ordinate Reference System.” World Cartography 9 (1969).

Edwards, Robert L. “Archaeological Use of the Universal Transverse Mercator Grid.” American Antiquity 34 (Apr 1969).

Strandberg, Carl H. and Ray Tomlinson. “Photoarchaeological Analysis of Potomac River Fish Traps.” American Antiquity 34 (July 1969).


Dills, Charles E. “Coordinate Location of Archaeological Sites.” American Antiquity 35 (July 1970).

Fischer, Irene, F. Ray Shirley, and Sandra Todd. “Specific Practical Applications of Satellite Geodesy.” Surveying and Mapping (Dec 1970).

Fischer, Irene. “The Development of the South American Datum 1969.” Survey Review 20 (Oct 1970).

The Status of World Topographic Mapping.” World Cartography 10 (1970).

Treaty to Resolve Pending Boundary Differences and Maintain the Rio Grande and Colorado River as the International Boundary. 23 Nov 1970. Available at

Granicher, John W. “The Inter American Geodetic Survey: Twenty-Five Years of Cooperation.” Paper prepared at the Army War College, 27 Dec 1972. Available at

Doyle, Frederick. “Federal Mapping and a National Grid.” Surveying and Mapping (Sept 1973).

Meade, Buford. “Coordinate Systems for Surveying and Mapping.” Surveying and Mapping (Sept 1973).

Pryor, William. “Plane Coordinates for Engineering and Cadastral Surveys.” Surveying and Mapping (Sept 1973).

Fischer, Irene. “A Continental Datum for Mapping and Engineering in South America.” Surveying and Mapping (Dec 1974).

Fischer, Irene. “Is the Astrogeodetic Approach in Geodesy Obsolete?” Surveying and Mapping (June 1974).

Fehr, Steve. “Honoring the Makers of Maps for Various Achievements.” Washington Post, 4 Sept 1975.

McGrath, Gerald. “‘From Hills to Hotine,’” The Cartographic Journal 13 (June 1976).

Obituary of Floyd Hough. ACSM Bulletin, Feb 1976, 43.

Dracup, Joseph. “The New Adjustment of the North American Datum.” ACSM Bulletin (Nov 1977): 27–28.

Chovitz, B. “A General Theory of Map Projections.” Bollettino di Geodesia e Scienze Affini 38 (1979).


United States Department of the Army. Conversion of Warsaw Pact grids to UTM Grids. Washington, 1981.

Crawford, Rodney L. “Grid Systems for Recording Specimen Collection Localities in North America.” Systematic Zoology 32 (Dec 1983).

Survey on map projections. World Cartography 17 (1983).

United States Defense Mapping Agency. Geodesy for the Layman, 5th ed. Washington: DMA, 1983.

Edney, Matthew. “Politics, Science, and Government Mapping Policy in the United States, 1800–1925.” The American Cartographer 13 (1986): 295–306.

Konvitz, Josef. Cartography in France, 1660–1848 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987).

Stone, Jeffrey. “Imperialism, Colonialism, and Cartography.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 13 (1988).


Maling, D. H. Coordinate Systems and Map Projections, 2nd ed. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1992.

Dastrup, Boyd. The Field Artillery: History and Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Treaty of Peace Between The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan And The State of Israel. 26 Oct 1994. Available at

Bartlett, Don. “A Practical Guide to GPS – UTM.” First posted to rec.backcountry 10 Feb 1995. Available at:

Grafarend, E. W. “The Optimal Universal Transverse Mercator Projection.” Manuscripta Geodætica 20 (1995).

Sobel, Dava. Longitude. New York: Walker, 1995.

Edney, Matthew. Mapping an Empire. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

Rushworth, Dennis. “Mapping in Support of Frontier Arbitration: Coordinates.” IBRU Boundary and Security Bulletin (Autumn 1997).

Mugnier, Clifford. “Ecuador.” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing (May 1999).


Mugnier, Clifford. “The Basics of Classical Datums.” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing (Apr 2000).

Chovitz, Bernard. Obituary of John O’Keefe. IAG Newsletter (Jan 2001).

Obituary of John O’Keefe. EOS (Jan 2001).

Cloud, John. “American Cartographic Transformations during the Cold War.” Cartography and Geographic Information Science 29 (2002).

Warner, Deborah Jean. “Political Geodesy: the Army, the Air Force, and the World Geodetic System of 1960.” Annals of Science 59 (2002): 363–389.

Casanova’s Outdoor Adventure Store. 2003? Available at

Grier, David.“Table Making for the Relief of Labour.” In The History of Mathematical Tables, ed. M. Campbell-Kelly et al. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Cruickshank, J. L. “German military maps of UK & Ireland of World War II.” Sheetlines 69 (Apr 2004).

Monmonier, Mark. “Practical and Emblematic Roles of the American Polyconic Projection.” Wiener Schriften zur Geographie und Kartographie, Band 16 (Vienna, 2004): 93–99.

Abidin, Hasanuddin et al. “Geodetic Datum of Indonesian Maritime Boundaries: Status and Problems.” Paper presented at the 2005 General Assembly of the International Federation of Surveyors.

Davies, John. “Uncle Joe Knew Where You Lived” (two parts), Sheetlines 72 (Apr 2005) and 73 (Aug 2005).

Fischer, Irene. Geodesy? What’s That? New York: iUniverse, 2005.

Комаровский, Ю. А. Использование Различных Референц-Эллипсоидов в Судовождении, 2nd ed. Vladivostok, 2005.

Permanent Court of Arbitration. Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission, Annex to the Commission’s Statement of 27 November 2006, List of Boundary Points and Coordinates. Available at

Release notes to Google Earth version 4.0. Available at

Srebro, Haim and Maxim Shoshani. “The Order of Precedence of Boundary Delimitations.” Paper presented at the 2007 General Assembly of the International Federation of Surveyors. Available at


Mugnier, Clifford. “Kingdom of Thailand.” Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing (Feb 2011).

Nolan, Mike. “The Introduction of Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Grid on Military Maps: A Sixty Year Retrospect.” Sheetlines 96 (2013).